compiled notes for HUM 101
HAND OUT FOR ART EDUCATION
The term arts education has had various meanings throughout the years. Following the lead of both the national standards and the Washington State Essential Learning, the term arts includes music, dance, drama and visual art. The visual arts and music have traditionally received the lion's share of attention in education. This report takes the position that all four art disciplines are essential to education and does not favor any one discipline over another.
The Arts are an essential part of public education. From dance and music to theatre and the visual arts, the arts give children a unique means of expression, capturing their passions and emotions, and allowing them to explore new ideas, subject matter, and cultures. They bring us joy in every aspect of our lives.
Arts education not only enhances students' understanding of the world around them, but it also broadens their perspective on traditional academics. The arts give us the creativity to express ourselves, while challenging our intellect. The arts integrate life and learning for all students and are integral in the development of the whole person.
The Arts communicate and speak to us in ways that teach literacy and enhance our lives. We must continue to find a place for arts programs and partnerships not only for what it teaches students about art, but for what it teaches us all about the world we live in.
Elements of Art
1. Line - can express emotion, create depth or define a space, and every beginning artist should master this technique before moving on to more complex techniques.
Eight Kinds Of Lines
There are basically eight kinds of lines: horizontal, vertical, diagonal, C-curves, S-curves, arches, circles, and spirals. Each one of these types of lines can produce outstanding images,
a. The S-Curve
This photo of a sand dune in Namibia illustrates a classic S-curve. One of the reasons photographers are drawn to shooting dunes is specifically because of the incredible curves in the contours of the sand. This kind of line is very pronounced at sunrise and sunset, and it makes such a strong artistic statement that it’s worth traveling halfway around the world to photograph.
b. The C-Curve has a strong visual appeal, and in a shot along Lake Superior in Wisconsin captured a frozen shoreline with a sweeping curve.
c. Spirals staircase is another outstanding example of how lines make an image compelling. The spiral staircase in the Vatican Museum is one of the best architectural spirals.
d. Circular Shapes Circular lines can also make a powerful compositional statement. For example, the dome in the Cathedral of Egar, Hungary, is beautiful not only because of the artwork on the ceiling but because of the graphic shapes, particularly the central dome.
e. Arches People appreciate the strength and beauty of the arch. The elegant lines are an artistic contribution to a building as evidenced by the coliseum in Rome.
f. Seeing Lines
Horizontal, vertical, and diagonal lines are bold elements in a composition, and it’s always worth composing pictures where they make dramatic contributions. The ceiling in the pyramid at the Louvre in Paris is an example. Diagonal lines are also incredibly powerful.
2. Shape - When lines meet, shapes are formed. Shapes are flat. Some shapes are geometric, such as squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and ovals. Other shapes are organic or irregular.
3. Color - Color light waves are reflected from objects to your eyes. There is no color in the dark.
4. Texture- The way something feels when you touch it. Artists can create the illusion of texture in artwork.
5. Form - Forms are three-dimensional. They are not flat.
6. Space - The empty place or surface in or around a work of art. Space can be 2-d, 3-d, negative and/or positive.
7. Value - The lightness or darkness or an object.
Principles of Art
1. Pattern - Artists create pattern by repeating a line, shape or color over and over again.
2. Rhythm - Artists create visual rhythm by repeating art elements and creating patterns. Rhythm can make
artwork seem active. It creates movement.
3. Balance - This describes how artists create visual weight. Both sides of the artwork will appear the same.
4. Emphasis- Artists make certain parts of their artwork stand out and grab your attention.
5. Proportion - Describes the size, location or amount of one thing compared to another.
6. Contrast - Occurs when an artist creates something that looks different from the rest of the artwork. An artist may use variety to make you look at a certain part or make the artwork more interesting.
7. Unity - The feeling that everything in the work of art works together and looks like it fits.
Two main aspects of art
The philosophical aspect is that which conveys information about the 'human condition', i.e. man as an entity capable of forced induction, as an entity with a 'soul'. This type of art always shows human figures engaged in some type of purposeful activity (in some cases a picture of a landscape might reflect something of the human condition but it is of an indirect nature). Nearly all of the "classical" art in museums throughout the world is of this type.
The aesthetic aspect is that which conveys information about the preferences of man as an entity capable of 'free induction', i.e. man as an animal, a perceptual rather than the conceptual creature of the former philosophical aspect.
Nearly all of "modern art" is of this type. It offers the viewer various "color swatches" which may be pleasing to look at the perceptual level but which convey no philosophical information except by indirection.
A claim is often made that this type of art is "abstract", i.e. it is an abstraction of a philosophical principle. It is not. They are what they appear to be ... just colors swatches.